Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Notre Dame de Paris

The Paris of the ancient world chooses to defend itself, to reduce the Ile de la Cité. So What appears on this island, from the fourth century, a large basilica. Originally dedicated to St. Stephen, she became the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Paris, after a period of cohabitation between the two titleholders. This double award reflects a partition between the internal part reserved to the bishop (Saint Etienne) and the part reserved for the chapter (Notre Dame).

Today we find this duality in the portals of the transept, dedicated to the north (porch overlooking the paddock canonical) to the Virgin and south (porch overlooking the paddock Episcopal) in Saint Etienne.

At the beginning of the twelfth century, the chapter became more powerful, no longer wants to settle for ancient basilica (despite its large dimensions). Beautification works are completed. But the real transformation is reached with the resurgence of the Episcopal filled. The cathedral of Saint Denis and Sens inaugurate the beginning of a movement that affects reconstruction Paris. Bishop Maurice de Sully changes the parish administration of Paris and began building the new cathedral from 1161.

It has the merit of design from the start location of the court, which is not for most other cathedrals.Work is progressing rapidly. The consecration of the bedside to take place in 1182. However, the death of Maurice de Sully, the pace of construction declines. Then there is a lack of documents to determine precisely what was the conduct of the work. It is estimated that the statues on the facade of the gallery were introduced in 1222. During this same period, while the facade is not yet complete, we change the elevation of the cathedral.

Indeed, it was quickly deemed too dark (it is). To bring a greater flow of light, it was decided to lengthen the upper windows by removing blind roses which falls between these windows and the galleries (Viollet-le-Duc restored this provision in its own way, in last bay of the nave). This makes it necessary to install a new drainage system and rehabilitate the structure. It also adds an arrow (although there is no evidence that they formally did not exist previously. Around 1230, the transept is redeveloped (addition of a bay, big roses). The whole is probably completed around 1245.

The choir (fence, loft, stalls ...) is remodeled several times, notably by Louis XIII and Louis XIV. All these development works disappeared with the Revolution. Notre-Dame de Paris was then granted a restoration of very good quality, made ​​by Viollet-le-Duc.

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