Monday, March 28, 2011


Venice (Venezia), a former republic in northern Italy dominated the time of its greatest prosperity, much of northern Italy and the eastern Mediterranean. 1797, the Republic ended with the self-dissolution of their government and fell, first to France and finally to Austria. In the course of the Risorgimento, Venice was built in 1866 in Italy. For the city of Venice today includes the industrial city located on the mainland Mestre. Because of the sometimes conflicting interests of the old town of Mestre and some politicians are fighting in vain for years for a separation. The old city of Venice, which are the subject of our consideration is divided, since the days of the Republic in six so-called Sestieri. It separates the Canal Grande, the main road, the Sestieri of Castello in the east, Cannaregio in the north and San Marco neighborhoods of Dorsoduro, San Polo and Santa Croce. The large island of Giudecca in the south is completely integrated to Dorsoduro, but historically and culturally distinguished from Venice. Venice to include other islands of the lagoon, the Murano.

In St. Mark's square in front of St. Mark's Church, the political center of the Serenissima, as Venice was also called, are three large poles (pili) with bronze pedestals by Alessandro Leopardi (1505), the memory of the conquered kingdoms of Cyprus, Candia and Morea, whose Banner she once wore. The Morea, now known as the Peloponnese, was a part of 1684 (conquest by Francesco Morosini) to 1715 the Serenisima. stands at the corner of Piazza San Marco and the Piazzetta, the collapse in 1902, rebuilt after a 98.6-meter-high bell tower (Campanile di San Marco). Below is based on the same a small, delicate stem: the loggia, with a bronze relief works and richly appointed marble hall which was built by Jacopo Sansovino 1540th Two sides of the Piazza San Marco and the Piazzetta, one of the enclosed by the Procurators. The Old Procurators (15th century) on the north side of the square hosted former homes of the Procurators of San Marco (now offices) and have the ground floor arcade with shops and coffee houses, in the second and third floor of Corinthian arch in strictly paratactic arrangement. To the east of the Old Procurators closes in 1498 by Mauro Codussi (or Coducci) in early Renaissance style clock tower was built with rich incrustated facade. The container on the opposite side of the New Procurators Offices, down with arcades, consist of 1536 by Sansovino the facade to the Piazzetta towards built ancient library of San Marco with two floors, Doric and Ionic columns and pilasters, reichgeschmücktem Fries and a plethora of ornaments and the 1584 started by Scamozzi actual Procuratie Nuove. They served under Napoleon as a royal palace. Today it houses the Museo Correr, and various public functions. At the library joins the sea at the 1536 running of Sansovino former Mint of Venice, without the connection of it with the library but a happy one.

Among the churches in Venice, the famous St. Mark Church ("St. Mark"), which was built between 976-1071 in the Byzantine style in the 19th Century has been restored. Its present form the building was in large part during the Dogats by Domenico Contarini (1043-1071). According to legend, this rested the body of the Evangelist Mark, who should have been brought from Alexandria 828 here. The church has a main west facade with five large portals, and colorful mosaics on gold ground, a vestibule with mosaic, more than 500 columns, artistically executed bronze doors, five large half-domes. Inside the church is 76.5 m long and 52 m wide. The floor is marble mosaic and the old church rich in statues and other sculptures, mosaics and other treasures. It is worth noting particularly the Pala d'Oro, a golden altar decorated with enamels intent of the 11th Century. Above the main portal of the four ancient horses resplendent in gilded bronze, which were brought in 1204 by the Doge Enrico Dandolo from the conquered Constantinople to Venice, under Napoleon reached Paris, but were eventually returned again. See also important churches in Venice.

Among the secular buildings is not only in relation to Venice, the Doge's Palace (Palazzo Ducale) is of paramount importance. The present building was in the Gothic style, designed by Filippo Calendario (?) In the 14 Century began, replacing the built under the Doge Sebastiano Ziani old palace. In the 15th and 16 Century has continued the construction. After several fires, the Doge's Palace in the 1570s was rebuilt in its original form. It includes the ground floor, a loggia with short columns and wide pointed arch, above a loggia with double vault number, then the massive, Gothic windows of a few broken, with alternating white and red marble-clad superstructure. In the courtyard there is the giant marble staircase (Scala dei Giganti), so named after the giant statues of Mars and Neptune, which they adorn. It forms the main entrance to the interior of the palace, and at its highest level, the Doge crowned. The eleven immense halls of the palace, with all the masterpieces of Italian painter (Paolo Veronese, Titian, Tintoretto, etc.) emblazoned, the hall of the Grand Council is the most magnificent. Andre rooms contain antiques and coin collection. Only one shows here from the time of the Republic of the state prisons and so-called Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri), which leads into the channel from the Doge's Palace by the separate state prison.

The Arsenal in sudöstlichen part of the city (1104 founded, rebuilt in 1304 and later extended several times) occupies an entire island, includes shipyards, pools, magazines for stocks of all kinds, Seiler and room workshops, anchor smiths, cannon foundry, a collection of weapons, various monuments, trophies, etc., and is surrounded by walls and fortifications. In its heyday it was the pride of the Venetian Republic, employing 16,000 workers. It is now closed military zone, a new use is being discussed. On the triumphal arch-like portal built in 1460, four antique marble lions, which in 1687 came from Piraeus to Athens here. Of the six theaters, the opera theater La Fenice is rebuilt in 1836, one of the greatest of his time in Italy. After a fire, it was faithfully reconstructed.

The Grand Canal is Venice's main thoroughfare. Since 13 Century, the two parts of town on a narrow point at the Rialto by a bridge, known as the Rialto bridge, combined. Today's Rialto Bridge was built 1588-1591 by the architect Antonio da Ponte. In the 19th Century were established two other bridges over the Canal Grande. Among the many palaces of the old Venetian noble families that are usually on the Grand Canal, are highlighted: the Palazzo Vendramin-Calergi (1481), the richly decorated Ca 'd'Oro, the Palazzo Corner della Ca' Grande by Sansovino (1532); Palazzo Pisani, Palazzo Grimani, with classical facade (1550); Palazzo Manin with Renaissance facade by Sansovino, Ca 'Rezzonico, Palazzo Contarini-Fasan with late gothic balconies, Palazzo Dario, Ca'Foscari, the Palazzi Contarini delle Figure, Corner-Spinelli, Franchetti Pesaro, and the town hall, consisting of the palaces and Farsetti Loredan; the Fondaco dei Tedeschi, a 13th Century built and 1505 rebuilt the German department store, and the Fondaco dei Turchi (12th century, left in the 17th century the Turkish merchants, and in 1880 renewed, now Natural History Museum), etc. The counterpart to the urban palaces are the many villas that Originated from the late sixteenth century in the hinterland of Venice, especially on the Brenta Canal. See also the lagoon city of palaces and villas.

Among the museums of Venice, are already above Museo Correr and the Gallerie dell'Accademia, the most important. Also of very good quality in the collection Franchetti Ca 'd'Oro, a museum of modern art in the Ca 'Pesaro and the Foundation Querini Stampalia.

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